Past Research / Publications


Our aim is to compile an ongoing extensive library of links to research papers and publications relating to Functional Neurological symptoms, dating back from 2012.

*Please make sure you abide by any copyright conditions on the publications.

If you know of any research papers or publications that can be added to this list, or are a Medical Professional/Researcher and would like a link to your publication added, can you please contact us at


A stress-system model for functional neurological symptoms
Kozlowska, Kasia. Journal of the Neurological Sciences , Volume 383 , 151 – 152

Imaging study identifies brain structural changes linked to physical, mental health in FND patients
News Medical, article source: (accessed 29/8/2017)

“Blaming, shaming, humiliation”: Stigmatising medical interactions among people with non-epileptic seizures [version 1; referees: 1 approved with reservations]
Robson C and Lian OS. Wellcome Open Res 2017, 2:55 (doi: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.12133.1)

A preliminary investigation of sleep quality in functional neurological disorder: Poor sleep appears common, and is associated with functional impairment
Graham, Christopher D. et al. Journal of the Neurological Sciences , Volume 378 , 163 – 166

Movement retraining for the dysfunctional brain
Stone JCarson A. 


A pilot study of reduction in healthcare costs following the application of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures
Russell, Leo A. et al. Epilepsy & Behavior , Volume 63 , 17 – 19

FND: Patient Priorities – Physiotherapy
Results of Patient and Public Involvement study for those with symptoms affecting their movement. Glenn Neilsen (Uploaded 23/12/16)

Functional Disorders in Neurology
Stone, Jon et al. Neurologic Clinics , Volume 34 , Issue 3 , 667 – 681

Functional neurological disorders: mechanisms and treatment
Lehn, A., Gelauff, J., Hoeritzauer, I. et al. J Neurol (2016) 263: 611.

Functional neurological disorders: the neurological assessment as treatment
Stone J. 

Functional neurological symptoms: welcome to the new normal
Edwards MJ

Inpatient Physiotherapy for Functional (Psychogenic) Gait Disorder: A Case Series of 35 Patients
Matthews, A., Brown, M. and Stone, J. (2016), Mov Disord Clin Pract, 3: 603–606. doi:10.1002/mdc3.12325

It Is All In Their Head: Functional MRI identifies Neural Abnormalties in Patients with Functional Movement Disorders
Talan, Jamie. Neurology Today, Volume 16 – Issue 14 – pp 1,12–14

Psychogenic Explanations of Physical Illness
Carolyn E. Wilshire, Tony Ward. Perspectives on Psychological Science. Vol 11, Issue 5, pp. 606 – 631

Randomised feasibility study of physiotherapy for patients with functional motor symptoms
Nielsen GBuszewicz MStevenson F, et al. 

Towards an integrative theory of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES)
Brown, Richard J et al. Clinical Psychology Review , Volume 47 , July 2016 , Pages 55–70

Which patients with epilepsy are at risk for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES)? A multicenter case-control study
Wissel, Benjamin D. et al. Epilepsy & Behavior , Volume 61 , 180 – 184


Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders
Kaski, Diego et al. The Lancet Neurology , Volume 14 , Issue 12 , 1196 – 1205

Differences in illness perceptions between patients with non-epileptic seizures and functional limb weakness
Ludwig, Lea et al. Journal of Psychosomatic Research , Volume 79 , Issue 3 , 246 – 249

Emotion-Motion Interactions in Conversion Disorder: an FMRI Study
Nicholson TRAybek SO’Daly O, et al. 

Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders associated with normal scores in psychological questionnaire: A case control study
van der Hoeven, Renske M. et al. Journal of Psychosomatic Research , Volume 79 , Issue 3 , 190 – 194

Outcomes of a 5-day physiotherapy programme for functional (psychogenic) motor disorders
G. Nielsen, L. Ricciardi, B. Demartini, R. Hunter, E. Joyce, M. J. Edwards. Journal of Neurology, 2015, Volume 262, Number 3, Page 674

Physiotherapy for functional motor disorders: a consensus recommendation
Nielsen GStone JMatthews A, et al. 

The body electric: a long view of electrical therapy for functional neurological disorders
Laura McWhirter, Alan Carson, Jon Stone; Brain 2015; 138 (4): 1113-1120. doi: 10.1093/brain/awv009


From Psychogenic Movement Disorder to Function Movement Disorder: It’s Time to Change the Name
Mark J. Edwards, Jon Stone, Anthony E. Lang. Mov Disord. 2014 Jun; 29(7): 849–852. Published online 2013 Jul 10. doi: 10.1002/mds.25562

Functional disorders in the Neurology section of ICD-11: A landmark opportunity
Stone J, Hallett M, Carson A, Bergen D, Shakir R. Neurology. 2014;83(24):2299-2301. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001063.

Loss of sensory attenuation in patients with functional (psychogenic) movement disorders
Isabel Pareés, Harriet Brown, Atsuo Nuruki, Rick A. Adams, Marco Davare, Kailash P. Bhatia, Karl Friston, Mark J. Edwards. Brain 2014; 137 (11): 2916-2921. doi: 10.1093/brain/awu237

Multidisciplinary treatment for functional neurological symptoms: a prospective study
Demartini B, Batla A, Petrochilos P, Fisher L, Edwards MJ, Joyce E. Journal of Neurology. 2014;261(12):2370-2377. doi:10.1007/s00415-014-7495-4.

Physical precipitating factors in functional movement disorders
Pareés, Isabel et al. Journal of the Neurological Sciences , Volume 338 , Issue 1 , 174 – 177

Psychological and behavioural treatments for adults with non-epileptic attack disorder
Martlew JPulman JMarson AGCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD006370. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006370.pub2.

Specialist inpatient treatment for severe motor conversion disorder: a retrospective comparative study
McCormack RMoriarty JMellers JD, et al. 

The prognosis of functional (psychogenic) motor symptoms: a systematic review
Gelauff JStone JEdwards M, et al. 

Treatment of Functional Motor Disorders
Jeannette M. Gelauff, Yasmine E. M. Dreissen, Marina A. J. Tijssen, Jon Stone. Current Treatment Options in Neurology 16:286

Treatment of Functional (Psychogenic) Movement Disorders
Ricciardi L, Edwards MJ. Neurotherapeutics. 2014;11(1):201-207. doi:10.1007/s13311-013-0246-x.

Tremor retrainment as therapeutic strategy in psychogenic (functional) tremor
Espay A, Edwards M, Oggioni G, et al. Parkinsonism & related disorders. 2014;20(6):647-650. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.02.029.

Using reaction time and co-contraction to differentiate acquired (secondary) from functional “fixed” dystonia
Macerollo A, Batla A, Kassavetis P, Parees I, Bhatia KP, Edwards MJ. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 2015;86(8):933-934. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2014-309040.


Functional movement disorders are not uncommon in the elderly
Batla, A., Stamelou, M., Edwards, M. J., Pareés, I., Saifee, T. A., Fox, Z. and Bhatia, K. P. (2013), Mov Disord., 28: 540–543. doi:10.1002/mds.25350

Functional symptoms in neurology: mimics and chameleons
Stone JReuber MCarson A. 

Imaging Psychogenic Movement Disorders
Mehta AR, Rowe JB, Schrag AE. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. 2013;13(11):402. doi:10.1007/s11910-013-0402-z.

Neurobiology of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders
Edwards MJ, Fotopoulou A, Pareés I. Current Opinion in Neurology. 2013;26(4):442-447. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e3283633953.

Physiotherapy for functional (psychogenic) motor symptoms: A systematic review
Nielsen, Glenn et al. Journal of Psychosomatic Research , Volume 75 , Issue 2 , 93 – 102

They’re not just in your head – functional neurological disorders
Amie Peterson, M.D., Neuroscience, Brain Institute OHSI, Published 3rd July 2013


A Bayesian Account of ‘hysteria’
Edwards, Mark J. et al. Brain 135.11 (2012): 3495–3512.

Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders: merging mind and brain
Edwards, Mark J et al. The Lancet Neurology , Volume 11 , Issue 3 , 250 – 260

Functional movement disorders: Successful treatment with a physical therapy rehabilitation protocol
Czarnecki, Kathrin et al. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders , Volume 18 , Issue 3 , 247 – 251

Functional weakness: clues to mechanism from the nature of onset
Stone JWarlow CSharpe M. 

‘Jumping to conclusions’ bias in functional movement disorders
Pareés IKassavetis PSaifee TA, et al. 

Physiotherapists and patients with functional (psychogenic) motor symptoms: a survey of attitudes and interest
Edwards MJStone JNielsen G. 

Stepped care for functional neurological symptoms
(Accessed 01.08.2017)

Which neurological diseases are most likely to be associated with “symptoms unexplained by organic disease”
J. Stone, A. Carson, R. Duncan, R. Roberts, R. Coleman, C. Warlow, G. Murray, A. Pelosi, J. Cavanagh, K. Matthews, R. Goldbeck, M. Sharpe. Journal of Neurology. Volume 259, Issue 1pp 33–38